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In the last 120 years, automotive passenger heating has evolved dramatically from open carriage-type automobiles with little occupant protection from the elements to complex electric vehicle (EV) heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

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For many of these eTrucks, there are going to be one, two, or possibly more, systems using refrigerant on the vehicle. I am not going to discuss any specific systems, because many of them are proprietary, but we can still talk about the generic packages, how to identify them, what can be serviced in a regular shop, and what to avoid at all costs!

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